Based on chemical structure:
The dyestuff is extracted from Indigofera tinctoria, a bush of the pea family. The dye is extracted from the leaves of the plant.
Red dyes are based on anthraquinone structure. These dyes are characterized by good fastness to light.
Alpha napthaquinones: -
Lawsone or Henna is the most prominent member of this class. It is obtained from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis. Another similar dye is Juglone obtained from the shell of unripe walnuts.
The yellow colours are derivatives of hydroxy and methoxy substituted flavones or isoflavones. Eg: - jackfruit bark
These are principal colouring matters of logwood and they give dark shades on cotton, silk, and wool.
This class includes carajurin, obtained from the leaves of Bignonia chica and Awabanin. It dyes silk in blue shades.
This class includes the orange pigment carotene found in carrots. The dyes based on carotenoid structure are annatto and saffron.